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    Electroplating waste gas treatment

    来源:admin(传梦环保整理发布)   时间:2018-08-28

    Electroplating waste gas treatment
    Electroplating is a small but indispensable basic technological industry in the national economy, and it is also a heavy pollution industry. The waste gas, waste water and waste residue produced by electroplating seriously affect people's life and health. In recent years, along the southeast coast and in the economically developed hinterland, the number of plating plants and points has been increasing, and the scope of plating processing has been expanding. There is no doubt that the production of "three wastes" in electroplating is also increasing, and the environmental pollution in the electroplating area is aggravated. If these waste gas is not taken measures to control, it will pollute the environment and human beings. Based on the experience of plating process design for many years, the author puts forward some suggestions and measures for the treatment of electroplating waste gas, which provides technical reference for the control of electroplating waste gas, and is of great significance for protecting the ecological environment and controlling air pollution.
    Types of electroplating waste gases
    There are many kinds of plating, including zinc, copper, nickel and chromium plating, zinc-nickel, zinc-cobalt, zinc-iron alloy plating, copper-zinc, copper-zinc-tin imitation gold plating, nickel-zinc, nickel-tin black plating, and to meet some IT industry, electronics industry. Gold plating, silver plating, tin plating and even a small amount of rare and precious metals such as ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, indium plating exist for the special needs of some products. At the same time, there will be metal oxidation, phosphating, passivation and other surface treatment processes. The additives and complexes in the formulation of these process solutions are dazzling. In addition, there are still a few kinds of plating can not eliminate cyanide in a short period of time, so cyanide plating still exists in some special products. Especially when the amount of acid and alkali is increased before plating and when the plating is stripped, a large amount of waste gas will inevitably be produced in the plating process. Among them are mainly some metal dust, acid and alkali waste gas, organic waste gas, chromate fog and a variety of electroplating bath heating and emission of a variety of waste gas, including ammonia waste gas, cyanide waste gas and so on.
    Hazards of electroplating waste gas
    The harm of electroplating exhaust gas to human body is mainly manifested in the harm to human respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Some electroplating exhaust gas is colorless and tasteless, causing long-term and chronic damage to respiratory tract. After gradual accumulation, the content exceeds the limit, leading to bronchitis, bronchial asthma, lung cancer, liver cancer and other diseases. Hydrogen chloride and acid-base fog emitted from electroplating process will stimulate the eyes and skin of human body, and will appear red eye disease, dermatitis and other symptoms. Township hazards to plants and buildings, sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxides discharged by electroplating process are harmful to plant growth in the air, and even kill plants. If acid rain is formed, it will also cause corrosion and rust to buildings.
    In addition to the above hazards, in the process of electroplating, the plating waste gas generated will also cause harm to the plating products. Mainly because in the electroplating workshop, acid and alkali fog, dust and so on too much, will have varying degrees of impact on the performance of electroplating equipment in the workshop and the purity of electroplating materials.
    Treatment of electroplating waste gas
    According to the "Electroplating Pollutant Discharge Standard" (GB21900-2008), the plating process and facilities must be equipped with a local gas collection system and centralized purification treatment, in order to unify the discharge from the exhaust canister into the atmosphere (thus the electroplating waste gas can be treated by three ways, namely, reducing the electroplating waste gas at the source and installing it Exhaust system and installation of electroplating waste gas purification equipment.
    Reduce emissions from source
    (1) Alkali fog inhibitors and acid fog inhibitors can be added to the solution respectively in the process of removing oil from alkali washing, rust from acid washing or scaling before electroplating, thus greatly reducing the escape of alkali fog and acid fog. At the same time, a narrow and movable windshield can be added on both sides of the grooves of the plating troughs, which can cover the anode hooks, anode plates and heaters and make the groove surface look neat and tidy. It can also enhance the ventilation effect of the groove edge because of the reduction of the area of the visible groove liquid, thereby reducing the pollution of the exhaust gas to the workshop environment.
    (2) Shot peening process can be used to replace some chemical pickling or acid-free pickling process when removing the oxide scale on iron and steel parts, thus greatly reducing the production of acid waste gas at the source.
    (3) When the copper parts are cleaned with mixed acid (sulfuric acid plus nitric acid) or depleted with nitric acid, the formation of nitrogen oxides can be inhibited and reduced by adding a small amount of urea. It is not recommended to use acid pickling and stripping.
    (4) adding a small amount of F-53 (perfluoroalkyl ether sulfonate) in chromium plating bath can inhibit the production of chromium acid fog. If polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride hollow plastic balls float on the liquid surface in the chromium plating bath, the fog suppression effect will be better.

    Installation of exhaust system and purification system
    Considering the treatment of electroplating waste gas, exhaust system can be installed to transport the polluted waste gas to the gas purification system, so as to achieve the purpose of removing toxic and harmful gases. It can be seen that the installation of exhaust system and purification system is a unified whole.
    Electroplating plant area is generally large, and belongs to the same production process, staff distributed throughout the room, in order to maintain a certain indoor negative pressure, should be fully ventilated mechanical air supply. The source of pollutants are some electroplating tank, pollutants will be directly released from the electroplating tank in the process of work, so only the local exhaust of each electroplating tank, and then according to the provisions of the quality treatment, after the discharge to the outside. In order to uniformly exhaust air and reduce the resistance of ventilation and exhaust system, the bending and three-way connection of the air duct should be designed along the direction of the air flow. In order to adjust the reasonable air volume, the throttle can also be adjusted in the air duct.
    In the treatment of acidic waste gas, the main method of purifying acidic waste gas is to spray acidic waste gas with three-stage alkaline solution, and then discharge it from a chimney. When the acidic waste gas is absorbed by this method, an airtight cover is installed on a vacuum exhaust pump, and the gas in the workshop is discharged into a spray tower with packing. The efficiency of acid removal can reach above 90%.
    In electroplating industry, the discharge of "three wastes" is very serious. In order to reduce the discharge of "three wastes", on the one hand, it is necessary to improve the technological process from the source, improve the production technology of electroplating, reduce the discharge of pollutants from the first step of industrial production; on the other hand, it is necessary to purify the pollutants discharged through research and analysis of pollutants. The nature of the use of chemical, physical, biological and other methods to remove pollutants, and ultimately achieve pollutant discharge standards to ensure that the environment is not polluted.
    Discharge standards for electroplating pollutants:
    In order to implement the Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Protection, the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution, the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution, the Law of the People's Republic of China on Marine Environmental Protection, the Decision of the State Council on Implementing the Scientific Outlook on Development to Enhance Environmental Protection, This Standard is formulated by the State Council on the formulation of plans for major functional zones throughout the country, the protection of the environment, the prevention and control of pollution, the promotion of plating production processes and pollution control technology. This standard stipulates plating enterprises and enterprises with plating facilities plating water pollutants and atmospheric pollutants emission limits and other content. This standard is applicable to the management of water pollutants discharge and the discharge of air pollutants in existing electroplating enterprises. This standard is applicable to the environmental impact assessment, design of environmental protection facilities, acceptance of completed environmental protection and discharge management of water and air pollutants after commissioning of plating enterprises. This standard is also applicable to anodized surface treatment facilities. This standard is applicable to the discharge of pollutants permitted by law; the location of newly established pollution sources and the management of existing pollution sources in special protected areas shall be reported to the local competent environmental protection department for the record; and urban sewage treatment plants shall ensure that the discharge of pollutants meets the relevant discharge standards. When a construction project intends to discharge wastewater into the urban drainage system with sewage treatment plants, the construction unit and the urban sewage treatment plant shall implement the provisions of the preceding paragraph. Since the implementation of this standard, the discharge control of water and air pollutants for electroplating enterprises shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of this standard, and the relevant provisions of the Comprehensive Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996) and the Comprehensive Air Pollutant Discharge Standard (GB 16297-1996) shall not be implemented. This standard is released for the first time.
    Absorbent is the main medium for waste treatment. Its properties and concentration are selected according to the nature of different waste gases. The consumption of unit gases is determined by calculating the molar flow rate of the absorbent to inert gases.
    The exhaust gas is inhaled by the air duct and passes through the packing layer from bottom to top. The circulating absorbent is sprayed evenly from the top of the tower through the liquid distributor to the packing layer. It flows downward along the surface of the packing layer and enters the circulating water tank. Because of the continuous contact between the updraft and the downdraft absorbent in the packings, the concentration of fluids in the updraft is becoming lower and lower, and the discharge requirements are met when the tower top is reached.
    High frequency switching power supply has the advantages of small volume, light weight, high efficiency, small ripple, high frequency, high control precision, stable performance, simple operation, low noise and obvious energy saving. Compared with ordinary silicon rectifier power supply, it saves 20% ~ 30% of electricity. It is the first product of electroplating manufacturers.

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